even casual examination of the Face as seen in this "new light"
(above, top) reveals two new pieces of vital information: 1) that
the eastern side, under even this pre-dawn illumination -- for whatever
reason -- is incredibly reflective; and 2) that, in lowered contrast
images (below) the source of this anomalously "high albedo"
is an inexplicable series (in the natural model) of highly geometric
Even those of
us who, for some time now, have interpreted the weight
of evidence in favor of an artificial origin for this unique
Cydonia construct, this new data is unexpected - nay, startling
-- confirmation of our previous analysis.
The key parameter
that makes this new image so remarkable, is "when" it
If you carefully
examine the "data block" for image V0 3814003 on the Arizona
State University (ASU) THEMIS website
(above), you can immediately ascertain that it was taken by the
Odyssey camera "at 4:39 AM," local Martian time. Further
reading of the table reveals that the "phase angle" -
that is, the geometric relationship between the Sun, the Martian
surface directly underneath the spacecraft just east of the Face,
and Odyssey itself - was "90.3 degrees." Since "90
degrees" (for a spacecraft directly overhead) would indicate
the Sun was literally on the eastern horizon, the slightly greater
angle reveals that actually the sun was 0.3 degrees below the horizon
when the image was acquired (and even slightly lower at the location
of Face itself).
The last line
in the table, "Description: Cydonia - face at night" confirms
this geometry: technically, then, this "Odyssey dawn image"
was actually acquired just before sunrise
with the Sun still
hidden below the Cydonia horizon (below).
inarguable geometry makes the astonishing high brightness of the
Face's eastern side - and before the Sun has risen - extraordinary
. And this, in turn, leads directly to the pivotal question:
just what could make "an average Martian mesa" (to quote
Carl Sagan, from his infamous Parade Magazine "Cydonia hit
piece" many years ago) so incredibly reflective
in the semi-dark, pre-dawn twilight of Cydonia?
comparison (below) reveals the true incongruity of such a brilliant-surfaced
object. The official NASA version of the Face from V03814003 (left)
is totally "washed out" on the illuminated (eastern side)
- even though the image was shot before the sun had risen!; while,
in the Enterprise rendition (right), after considerable effort to
lower brightness levels, some surface details can just be seen beneath
Again, for this
over saturation of the THEMIS imaging CCDs to have occurred, and
under these really dim lighting conditions, "something"
about the innate reflectivity of this Martian surface feature --
at this geometry -- must truly be "anomalous." To learn
just how "anomalous,"
one only need look to spacecraft surface images of pre-dawn Martian
twilight, captured by other unmanned missions
the unmanned Viking Landers in 1976 (below) or Pathfinder, in 1997.
In this Viking
1 post-sunset surface view (above), prepared by former USGS graphic
artist Don Davis, note how the sky remains bright well after the
sun sets on Mars (sunset, of course, is merely the opposite condition
to sunrise; therefore a post sunset image is optically equivalent
to a pre-dawn image at the same location and time) The bluish "afterglow"
several degrees above the sunset point on Mars is due to the unique
"forward scattering" properties of the much thinner Martian
atmosphere, which is filled with varying amounts of finely-divided
dust (in the official model) - preferentially scattering blue light
forward toward the camera
The major thing
to note in this image is the Lander wind cover on the Viking nuclear
power generator (light ellipse -- far right): notice that it is
just barely visible in this twilight Mars illumination
though the lighting geometry is ideal for so-called "specular
reflection" (the light above the setting sun should be bouncing
directly toward the camera) and
the cover itself is painted
Yet, as can
be seen, under this illumination this white wind cover is barely
Why, under identical
lighting (below), is the Face- even allowing for the obviously increased
gain settings in the Odyssey camera (to bring out the darker western
side) -- so incredibly bright? And why is that inexplicably reflective
eastern surface also arrayed in those stark
image (below), this one from Mars Pathfinder, reinforces this enigma:
an obviously almost un-illuminated landscape, lit only by the sky,
clearly incapable of presenting such dramatic surface differences
as seen in the Odyssey Cydonia image
it's a Viking 2 sunrise shot that best illustrates this major new
you can see (above), even with the sun actually on the horizon, the
overall illumination of the surface landscape in this Viking 2 dawn
image is extremely dark -- a combination of dust absorption of sunlight
at the horizon, and an extremely thin Martian atmosphere.
With the gamma
of the same image significantly increased (above) - equivalent to
the gain employed in the Odyssey VIS camera for the pre-dawn Cydonia
image -- the surface rocks and other features become more visible.
But, as is readily apparent, with the exception of two small foreground
objects at the lower right, brightness extremes presented by the
Face are simply not present on the reddish rocks and boulders strewn
across this Martian landscape - even when directly illuminated by
the rising sun!
(below) are in themselves most interesting. It is apparent that
their bright sunward-facing surfaces are from polished, mirror-like
reflections - probably caused by wind blown sand abrading over time
metallic crystal surfaces (or, at least "something" metallic
problem with applying this natural explanation to the Face is simply
specular reflections from these close-in features viewed by the
Viking 2 camera are on the order of "a few square inches";
the surface area of specular reflections from the Face's eastern
side measures several miles in area
the inevitable critics of the preceding image processing and Face
analyses, it is imperative for everyone to realize that these spectacular
results have been achieved by merely decreasing the brightness of
Odyssey image V03814003, and then applying a 3X pixel over sampling
(to smooth out "jaggies"). No other "image processing"
techniques have been applied.
Yet, the striking
results - both in revealing the highly anomalous brightness of this
feature, as well as its inexplicable geometric nature -- are easily
illustrated by the following series of images (below). Here we have
applied "decreasing gamma adjustments" in six stages to
the same published ASU/JPL "dawn" image - essentially,
just "turning down the brightness." As can be seen, by
the time the brightness has been decreased to approximately 10%
of the official published image value, the astonishing 3-D geometry
of the Face's eastern side (below) is easily and overwhelmingly
Given that we
do not have access to the absolute photometric transfer functions
of the Odyssey VIS camera, this technique can also be used to put
some crude upper limits on the absolute reflectivity of this amazing
If we equate
the surface brightness of the soils around the Face with NASA's
published estimates of the average albedo (reflectivity) of the
Cydonia region (about 20 percent -- according to a pre-Pathfinder
NASA Conference), we can then approximate the relative reflectivity
of the Face in this new image, based on when the surface "disappears"
in our brightness reduction animation (below).
in mind that these are only "ballpark estimates," the
Face via this technique turns out to be reflecting - straight up
-- an amazing 99.9% of the surface illumination falling on it, compared
to the ground's average of about 20%! Since no rocky surface can
possibly have this degree of right-angle, natural reflectivity --
the Face's eastern side MUST BE acting like a set of coherent, artificial
multi-colored, "prismatic" appearance of these striking
3-D "panels" (close-up-below) raises the serious possibility
of semi-transparent, glass-like refractions in this material --
from whatever is making up this structure. This, in addition to
the previously discussed, front surface, mirror-like reflections
. This, in turn, is totally consistent with the possibility
of a highly anomalous artificial surface to the Face's construction
which we published over ten years ago.
And, when an
elaborate effort is made to equalize the much darker, western half
of the structure with the brilliant eastern-side (below) - again,
by only adjusting proper image brightness and contrast from east
to west - the three-dimensional, internal scattering nature of the
Face comes "shining through"
as someone on the Odyssey team intended, and as we scientifically
predicted over a decade ago.
in the 1992 Edition of "The
Monuments of Mars," we strongly suggested that the Face was
NOT merely "a mesa-carved 'Mount Rushmore'
lying on a
level Martian plain" -- but something "far more interesting."
and Mike Stein's unprecedented computerized
fractal work on the original Viking images had strongly indicated
by 1990 that "something" about the Face was decidedly
"non-fractal" -- i.e. in one interpretation, it is composed
of artificial surface materials (see below), which are successfully
resisting the relentless efforts of the Martian climate to turn
them back to dust. The bright "Face highlight" of the
non-fractal Face image (left) indicates how much it departs from
its far more fractal surroundings
analysis (below) further points out this dramatic "fractal
model fit error" of the Face's pixels, compared to the total
image area - i.e. its unique surface signature, indicating potential
"artificiality" -- even more effectively.
we said in1992: that Carlotto's newly published "non-fractal
Face results" were likely due to a "sophisticated
placement of shadow-casting [artificial] pyramidal substructures
on [the] underlying mesa .
In other words,
that major portions of the Face were composed of "artificial
now showing (through erosion) countless exposed elements
of their internal geometric (thus, non-fractal - compared to their
Cydonia surroundings) structure
." This was in direct
opposition to the prevailing opinion of all other researchers at
the time (those who took seriously the tenant that the Face is indeed
"an artificial structure") -- who believed (and still
do!) that the Face was carved
in other words, "Mt. Rushmore."
In my opinion,
to the contrary: Carlotto's provocative fractal results strongly
indicate that the Face (or at least large portions of it
has been built.
But, even further,
I began at that moment to also seriously consider an even more extraordinary
That the Face
was, in fact, two "faces," specifically engineered (again,
not "carved") as a massive, constructed work of art --
designed (for some reason on Mars) to reflect two distinctly different
hominid and feline.
When the MGS
"full Face image" was grudgingly released by Michael Malin
in late May of 2001 (below) -- and the feline eastern half overwhelmingly
confirmed (even to observers who knew nothing about our ten-year-old
wrote on Enterprise:
to this long-awaited image, a few in the independent research community
have even responded by declaring that the Eastern half, or Cliff
side, is 'more eroded' than the City side. Or, they have described
the previously shaded side as 'more irregular' - anything, apparently
to keep from admitting that it's feline.
it is simply wrong that the Eastern (Cliff) half is 'more eroded'
than the Western (City) half (above). It is equally wrong that that
side (the right) is also more 'irregular.' These are clearly coping
mechanisms put forth by those that expected to see a symmetrical
'human' face. The reality is that the Eastern half is simply less
familiar than the more commonly seen Western (Viking) half. And,
since it is decidedly feline, it is less consistent with many of
the hopes and expectations of seeing a familiar, friendly human
visage staring back at us from the Cydonia Martian plain. In reality,
the Eastern half is significantly less eroded and appears to have
more of the original 'casing' on it then the more weathered Western
half (above). What the problem really comes down to is that the
Cliff side confirms our model -- that that side is feline -- and
not 'theirs' (that the Face would be symmetrical, and human) --
and that is a new scientific and political reality that many long-time
researchers (and even casual observers) of this decades-long puzzle
are having difficulty coping with right now."
Remarkably, the latest multi-spectral Odyssey "dawn" Cydonia
image -- V03814003 -- now further supports precisely such a model--
an inexplicable, "honeycomb-like" pattern on the Face
-- visible as a series of "brilliantly reflective, geometric
but only on the eastern side.
This is now
totally consistent with our previous analysis: that the eastern
half has (by virtue of being shielded by the western side, which
has taken the brunt of the sand and wind erosion) preserved a far
less-eroded, highly reflective surface of the original Monument.
Further, this new pre-dawn data totally eliminates several competing
hypotheses put forward in 2001 to "explain" the striking
visual asymmetry when the MGS "full Face image" was first
released - including, those
that speculated that "deep sand dunes" were covering
the eastern aspects of the Monument!
Look at this
direct comparison (below): between the MGS 2001 black and white
image of the Face, and the latest Odyssey pre-dawn color view. As
can be seen, "something" about that eastern surface is
creating an intensely mirror-like reflection of the pre-dawn Martian
lighting - and in a distinctly geometric pattern. Could this merely
be some type of inherently bright "scattering" material
is not a likely explanation for this striking optical appearance,
can be seen by in this crucial terrestrial comparison (below).
The object on
the left is "Shiprock Butte," a literal sunrise shot of
an awesome, wind-eroded surface feature in northwestern New Mexico,
considered an analog in the "mainstream" view to the "wind-sculpted
natural geology of the Face on Mars." The object on the right
is the new Odyssey "pre-dawn" composite image of the Face
-- its brilliant eastern side (again, in the dim pre-dawn Martian
lighting), clearly overexposed.
Note that Shiprock
has some snow on it, both on the sunward facing side and in the
shadows. However, even under direct sunrise illumination here on
Earth (1.5 times closer to the Sun, thus 2.25 times brighter), the
light scattering from the Shiprock snowy surface (left) cannot begin
to match Odyssey's pre-dawn reflections from the Face (right)!
Meteorological Centre, fresh snow has an albedo of about 83
%. Old "aging" snow only scatters about 50% of sunlight
falling on it. Since we've now quantitatively estimated the eastern
side brightness of the Face (above) at over 99% (!), this effectively
rules out any natural "high albedo, lambert-type (all-direction)
scattering surfaces" - caused by snow or ice (water, or even
frozen C02) -- as an explanation for the severely overexposed Face's
eastern half. And, if "snow" was present on the Face when
the image was acquired (hardly likely, given the official Martian
northern hemisphere date of image acquisition - northern summer),
why didn't this same snow fall on the shadowed side in the Odyssey
or on the other, nearby mesas
as it has at Shiprock?
can be seen in this computer-generated "ray trace" rendering
of Barry Swan, below) - a flat, mirror-like set of parallel
reflecting surfaces can reproduce precisely such highly overexposed
recordings of the Face's eastern surface, compared to non-specular
at key geometric angles.
In other words,
the evidence just presented strongly indicates that "something"
about the protected eastern Face's surface (the "feline"
) -- captured by Odyssey in an instant of precise pre-dawn
sun/spacecraft illumination geometry - is capable of producing mirror-like
bounced 250 miles straight up
the sun had risen over the Cydonia horizon!
is reinforced by a comparison of the Face with its closest "next
door neighbor," a mesa located just to the southeast (below,
right). As can be seen, while the Face's eastern flank again is
totally overexposed in the Odyssey view, the mesa right next door
is barely lit! Yet, the source of illumination for both objects
is exactly the same
the pre-dawn brightening several degrees
above the Cydonia horizon.
By the process
of elimination, we are inexorably forced to conclude that only some
kind of manufactured, highly "directional" glass and metal
surface on the Face -- whereby the angles of all the surviving reflecting
elements, despite the curving underlying structure, are aligned
-- could redirect the horizon sky glow coherently, vertically, at
such a specific angle
and thus produce these startling optical
phenomenon seen in Odyssey's VIS camera!
There is the
one other equally artificial, but even more startling alternative
In this Mars
Surveyor image of the Face (above, left), compared to the same area
from Odyssey (above, right), note the distinct, glowing, three-dimensional
quality of the eastern geometry seen in the Odyssey view. Then,
note hints of a similar rectilinear structure on the Face's surface
in the white light image, at opposite lighting and higher resolution.
This key similarity - but at two totally different scales -- suggests
that the brilliant reflecting elements seen in the Odyssey, 20-meter
color version may in fact be larger scale, more massive interior
structures - captured underneath the visible light features seen
in the MGS 5-meter view.
This would have
been possible because of the unique illumination angle of this image
sunlight, shining almost horizontally through a high-tech, now porous
(glass?), still eroding eastern surface covering -- to be photographed
by Odyssey, looking straight down at a 90-degreen angle. A good
analogy would be the view through a fine-mesh window screen at twilight,
into a well-lit room -- where the mesh is literally too small to
be seen against the massive illuminated pieces in the room
effect in this Odyssey view would have been identical to an internal
lighting system - producing an imaging effect almost like an x-ray
making visible for the first time the internal architectural
structure of the Face on Mars!
One last item
on the Face:
Odyssey image finally allows a direct comparison of key morphological
predictions re the eastern side, against the actual lit view
which up 'til now have been based totally on images illuminated
from the west. Kynthia, the Enterprise art director for many years,
has spent considerable time and effort painstakingly sculpting (in
clay - remember that?!), as well as with computer-generated models,
what the eastern "feline" side should look like
when we finally had Odyssey's new view.
Below is a direct
Back to the
surroundings of the Face.
If you examine
a bit more closely features in the immediate vicinity in this unique
Odyssey view, more fascinating "optical anomalies" begin
to make themselves apparent. Again, take that "average mesa"
to the southeast of the Face (immediate right, below). In this darkened,
more realistic rendition of a portion of image V03814003, it is
now evident that it too is not behaving exactly like "an average
of all, its dramatic brightness difference, compared to the Face's
"right next door," is NOT because of any major differences
in height. As can be seen again in the Mars Pathfinder post-sunset
imagery (below), after sunset (or before sunrise), the primary landscape
lighting comes from a large area of the sky -- several degrees above
the point where the sun has actually set (or will rise). Thus, the
sky illumination of both features in V03814003 - regardless of their
intrinsic height - is essentially the same.
So, how to account
for their dramatic differences in brightness
if not color
in image V03814003?
In this rotated,
close-up, low brightness view (below), the "next door feature's"
major characteristic in this pre-dawn lighting turns out to be an
amazing, regular geometric "checkerboard" of multi colors!
Close examination reveals different axes and different levels to
these colors - as if we're looking down through multiple layers
of some transparent, actively prismatic substance. The unmistakable
"bluish" tints on the southeast (facing the pre-dawn sky)
are a further signature of internal scattering of the predominant
color of the pre-dawn sky itself
The only known
material that is a) transparent, and b) can create such prismatic
coloration, as well as "a bluish, scattering of sky light"
is glass - a most unlikely substance, I think you would agree,
to be found on "a naturally eroded mesa at Cydonia...."
impression of this feature in this extraordinary Odyssey image is
that of a huge, glass ruin - once composed of many floors and rooms
(look carefully, above), and many different axes of symmetrical
now reduced to just a n echo of its former self.
There is also,
in this un-rotated, lightened version of the same feature (below),
a remarkable array of additional, also distinctly "bluish"
geometric patterns evident all across the entire upper surface
some even arranged in precise, concentric circles. These patterns
clearly outline the formerly highly symmetric nature of this construct!
For example, a "straight line axis" -- connecting two
of these "concentric circles" at each end -- dominates
the overall morphology. This axis is at a 45-degree angle to the
image frame and, significantly, is also precisely parallel to the
Platform edges of the Face, just northwest
object - seen literally in this new light -- is also clearly NOT
"just another average mesa!"
That this internal-scattering
material is likely glass -- the remaining remnants of what must
have been a dazzling array of superstructures once built all across
this "mesa" -- is evident in the unique nature of its
appearance; unlike the Face's "blinding reflections,"
these geometric patterns are somewhat "more subtle reds and
blues, laid over a darker, underlying matrix"
indication that only the pre-dawn lighting at this angle is capable
of making them apparent against the darker surface underneath (via
right-angle internal scattering, as opposed to surface reflections)
from Odyssey's 90-degree perspective overhead
spacecraft/sun geometry also explains why, in the higher phase Viking
western lighting images, these features were not an outstanding
"fractal anomaly" in Carlotto and Stein's original analysis;
at those higher sun angles, and at Viking's resolution (one half
Odyssey's), the surviving, delicate and essentially transparent
glass geometry seen beautifully here is essentially invisible!
To the east
of this remarkable feature lays another, also completely nondescript
Martian "knob" seen in the original Viking views (below).
Again, at this unique pre-dawn Odyssey lighting, its true, exquisitely
anomalous nature finally is revealed--
As a stunning
set of "right-angle glowing features and internal rectilinear
geometries," apparently created by a massive array of partially
surviving shattered glass cubes! These incredibly geometric features,
as can be seen (above), are scattering the blue sky light even more
before another Cydonia dawn
of this remarkable pre-dawn Odyssey frame reveals a possible solution
to another long-standing mystery about Cydonia (below): the true
nature of the "D&M."
the original 1976 Viking images, this singular five-sided feature
(above), located just a few miles southwest of the Face, has come
to represent - -perhaps even more than the celebrated "Face"
itself - the continuing, haunting enigma of Cydonia
termed the "mathematical
Rosetta Stone," because of its unique and telling internal
mathematical relationships, the physical nature of this object remains
a major Martian mystery.
anomalous five-sided form presented here from Viking (above),
additional Odyssey B&W imagery last year revealed another geometric
aspect to this fascinating feature's profound internal symmetry
even though the Mars Surveyor spacecraft has been in orbit for over
six years, Michael Malin (Principal Investigator of the MOC camera
aboard the MGS) has yet to release a full-on, high-resolution (>5meters)
image of this extraordinary, obviously highly symmetrical Cydonia
structure. Without such detailed close-ups, fundamental questions
regarding the true nature of this object will remain unanswered
It was with
some interest, then, that we realized that in the bottom left portion
of this Odyssey "dawn" image, the "northeast quadrant"
of the D&M had, in fact, been imaged
at ~20 meter resolution
(roughly twice that of Viking) -- and in color. Perhaps even more
important, whereas all previous D&M images (Viking and Odyssey)
have been taken with the sun coming from the left, in this image
the Pyramid is clearly illuminated from the right - the direction
of the not-yet-risen-sun.
It is immediately
apparent in this image that the D&M - named by the author after
the two original Goddard contract imaging specialists who found
it on the Viking imagery, Vince DiPietro and Greg Molenaar --- is
as reflective at this viewing angle as the Face itself!
the "mesa in the middle" (below), is scattering just about
what would be expected in this lighting, while the Face (top) and
D&M (below, left) are distinctly far too bright
differences in height or surface slopes should make no difference
as the source of illumination is a large, diffuse area
in the Martian eastern sky many degrees above the Cydonia horizon
(see again, Viking and Pathfinder surface images, above).
material is making the Face literally "glow" in this pre-dawn
light, is also having the same effect upon the mysterious "D&M"
this close-up Enterprise enhancement (below), this overwhelming glare
has been substantially reduced
allowing details of the "protected"
northeast side for the first
time to emerge.
And, in this comparison (below, far right), a veritable "honeycomb"
of highly rectilinear, room-like features finally are exposed.
new view now provides startling confirmation of a hypothesis initially
framed in the first edition of "Monuments,"
now almost 20 years ago: namely, that the D&M is literally hollow
- created as a vast, compartmentalized "super condominium"
a true "arcology" on Mars. The ordered geometry
- together with the anomalous reflectivity --
here, only reinforce that original view
* * *
This short recitation of optical Cydonia anomalies now hints at
a dramatic escalation of our original "Intelligence Hypothesis":
Namely, that all of the nearby features to the Face were either
artificially modified, or had some kind of artificial structures
built upon them
in the epoch during which the Face itself
was first created. That their individual light-scattering properties
are also now strikingly "anomalous" is unmistakable. One
can only wonder what a similar pre-dawn image, secured by Odyssey
would reveal about my other original discovery
The City of Pyramids itself.
Obviously, this new Odyssey data has opened up new, fundamental
questions about the extant and nature of "artificial construction
and the ultimate nature of what eventual
rover missions - or a manned landing itself! -- will one day come
* * *
So, how do we
go about testing this, admittedly, increasingly extraordinary data?
of the two MER rovers currently
enroute to Mars (below) could be landed at Cydonia. By virtue
of their onboard color CCD stereo cameras, and the sophisticated
analytical x-ray and gamma ray equipment that they carry, we'd then
know in short order if these anomalous optical features seen from
orbit are backed up by true physical anomalies measured on the ground
including, the unmistakable signatures of manufactured, high-tech
alas, that's not going to happen - in the short run.
NASA seems determined
to follow their step-by-step, "drip by drip" planned escalation
of the interesting discoveries at Mars ... with the "discovery"
during the MER missions of present water just beneath the soil
the next step on their "timed-release aspirin" political
science agenda, and the "countdown"
But, NASA is
not the only "player" in the game this time."
besides the two NASA rovers, three other spacecraft (one piggy-backing
on the other) are scheduled to arrive at Mars. These five missions
make up a veritable "fleet" of robots currently enroute
(below), operated by three separate national interests this time:
Japan, the United States and Europe
Since two of
them - the Japanese "Nozomi" mission, and Europe's "Mars
Express" - are NOT being operated under NASA management, there's
at least a glimmer of hope (ironic - since that's what "Nozomi"
means in Japanese -- Hope!) that one of these three foreign spacecraft
might actually, independently, add significant new information to
the "artificial structures on Mars" question. But -- only
if they secure some specifically targeted, carefully timed new observations
of previously known ruins - and then only if they're "allowed"
to make the information public
In the wake
of Odyssey's new revelations on Cydonia, obviously, high on our
list will be requests of both the Europeans and the Japanese for
new, pre-dawn (or, immediate post-sunset) orbital observations of
Cydonia with the state-of the art, high-resolution color CCD cameras
that both the Japanese and ESA (European Space Agency) missions
carry. Though the Japanese (Nozomi) mission will possess a
three color CCD camera called MIC ("Mars Imaging Camera"),
its capabilities are limited by the overall mission design - which
constrains its latitude of coverage of Mars and pixel resolution
the latter to about 60 meters, and only at the equator. Therefore,
"Mars Express" mission is probably our best shot.
is designed to take up residence around Mars in late December, 2003
(Christmas night!), in an approximately 7000 by 161-mile, 7.5 hour,
polar elliptical orbit (below). For roughly 40 minutes each revolution,
centered around periapsis (the
closest point to Mars), the on-board HRSC
(High Resolution Stereo Camera) system will take images - in
color, stereo and at very high resolution
down to ~2-meters
per pixel. The rest of the orbit will be devoted to relaying this
imaging data back to Earth, and conducting other
It is the stereo
and color capability of the HSRC which interests us here the most.
If what we see
in the Odyssey "dawn image" is truly "specular reflection"
- i.e. coherent flashes of light from mirror-like, artificial structures
on (or underneath) the surface of the Face -- then the brightness
of the Face's eastern side will vary dramatically in only a few
seconds, as Mars Express flies into and out of these "beamed"
By timing it's
flyover at the same pre-dawn geometry as the Odyssey image, and
comparing the position, brightness, and color changes of the reflection
features in its successive stereo HRSC scans, the physical location
of the reflecting elements - either on the Face's surface, or underneath
-- can be firmly determined by the Mars Express mission. In addition,
examination of the neighboring "mesas" - also in stereo
and color - will allow determination of their relative compositions
and/or physical surface differences, in comparison to the Face.
In short, the
capability to finally secure "smoking gun data," regarding
the entire Cydonia question, lies within the capability of ESA's
new Mars mission. The question is: do they have the political will
and interest - against the apparent continuing "cover-up"
agenda of NASA and the United States -- to honestly pursue it? And,
again, will they be allowed
you come in.
If enough readers
of this paper, and followers of this continuing Investigation, demand
that the Principal Investigator of Mars Express' HRSC -- Dr. Gerhard
Neukum, of the Freie Universität Berlin --use the HRSC's exquisite
stereo and color capability to secure this vital information
it can be made to happen.
Simply by sending
Dr. Neukum (below) a heartfelt e-mail or letter -- outlining the
scientific objectives of the new Mars Express Cydonia imaging his
instrument can uniquely acquire; by explaining the extraordinary
implications if artificial structures are scientifically confirmed
on the planet Mars
the extraordinary, profoundly puzzling Odyssey pre-dawn Cydonia
observations described here.
his address and e-mail:
Gerhard Neukum, Mars Express
HRSC Principal Investigator
Freie Universität Berlin, Earth Sciences Dept., Germany
Tel: +49 30 8387 0579 (secretary: -575)
Email: [email protected]
One last point:
The Aug. 15,2003
issue of Science, probably (next to Nature) the most prestigious
science journal in the world, ran an editorial entitled "One
Nuclear Leap To Mars." In it the editorial writer discussed
the possibility of finding "something bizarre on Mars that
would trigger a manned Mars expedition." The last paragraph
in particular is the most telling: the writer concludes by saying
"perhaps one of the spacecraft now on the way to the Red Planet
- one of the two NASA rovers, the Japanese Nozomi Mission, or Mar
Express and its associated Beagle 2 -- will [not 'may'] discover
something compelling or bizarre
that would shake people into
thinking 'We need to go now.'" The last quote being from astrogeologist
Jim Rice, of Arizona State University."
State, of course, is the institution which took the extraordinary
THEMIS image of this amazing object in the Cydonia pre-dawn